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Question 1:

Lack of properly established civilian institutions in Latin America created loopholes that allowed military dictatorship to thrive. The military had a more cohesive structure of administration that enabled military regimes to seize power easily. Military juntas created the notion that their system of leadership would guarantee political stability by addressing threats such as communism. Furthermore, they convinced civilians that a military regime was non-partisan and effective unlike politicians and civilian institutions that promoted corruption. The onset of military dictatorship in Chile was rather unexpected, as the country had had a relatively long history of democratic leadership. Chile witnessed the onset of a regime that brutalized and repressed its subjects when a military coup under Pinochet outset Allende’s government in 1973. However, unlike in most cases of dictatorial leadership, the Pinochet regime adopted monetarist economic policies in which there was minimal government interference with the economy. The economic policies adopted by Pinochet had adverse effects on the economy of Chile with the poor and middle class bearing the greatest blunt.

Question 2:

The Cuban and Nicaraguan revolutions depict events concerning changes in various socioeconomic and political aspects in Latin America. Although these two revolutions occurred approximately 20 years apart, they were a response to brutal, oppressive and corrupt leadership regimes that had little concern for the affairs of their subjects. However, the level of the United States’ involvement in the two revolutions differed considerably. The US played a more active role in the Cuban revolution compared to its role in Nicaragua. In order to protect its interests in Cuba, the United States promoted the continuation of dependent economic systems and had a considerable influence among the elite. In addition, it provided shelter for Batista after he was overthrown. In the Nicaraguan revolution, rising pressure from the US government on Somoza created an opportunity for the FSNL to continue with its activities. Although the United States was keen on ensuring a Sandinistas government did not ascend into power, it only participated in organizing the transition of power from Somoza.

Question 3:

The IMF, World Bank and Latin American elites played a central role concerning the privatization of state enterprises in Latin America by collaborating in implementing policies and making adjustments that would improve socioeconomic and political freedom. This undertaking sought to bring about economic liberalization and promote increased participation of various institutions in the private sector. These parties were aware that economic freedom would give people an opportunity to influence economic and political matters that affected their lives.

Question 4:

Neoliberalism in Latin America refers to adjustments in various sectors of economy to promote its expansion. This involves the implementation of strategies aimed at reducing social spending, encouraging increased participation in the private sector, elimination of trade barriers and tackling social problems through market-based approaches. By adopting measures that seek to protect the interests of businesses and promote investments, neoliberalism helps to cushion a country against debts and encourages entrepreneurship and industrialization. Privatization in Latin America was largely an attempt to minimize the government’s interference with the economy through the transfer to the ownership of state institutions. This would ensure the prevalence of a free market.

Question 5:

Revolutions in Latin America mostly occurred as a response to regimes that prompted brutality, corruption, repression and economic problems. The people involved in these revolutions sought to attain a status quo and attain democratization. Economic hardships fueled most revolutions as the poor and middle class fought against systems and institutions that promoted injustices and only favored the rich. External parties played a central role in influencing most revolutions in Latin America. The involvement of these parties largely resulted from the need to protect certain interest in various parts of Latin America. 

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